Mountbatten Plan of 15 June 1947 is the date when the All India Congress accepted the plan of the British Government to partition India in New Delhi. This plan was announced by the last Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten. The partition of India in August 1947 is undoubtedly one of the most tragic and violent events. In fact, the creation of Pakistan was advocated by the All India Muslim League, which was established in 1906 in Dhaka. Its Muslim members were of the opinion that Muslim members of the Indian National Congress did not have the same rights as Hindu members. Congress discriminates against them.
In 1930, the first person to demand a separate state for Muslims was Allama Iqbal, who at that time believed that it was important to become a separate Muslim country from ‘Hindu-majority India’. Allama Iqbal along with Muhammad Ali Jinnah and other members of the All India Muslim League prepared a proposal for the formation of a new Muslim state. By 1930, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who had long strived for Hindu-Muslim unity, suddenly became concerned about the condition of minorities in India. For this he started blaming the Congress, of which he himself was also a member at one time. He accused the Congress of discriminating against the Muslims of the country.
At the Lahore Conference in 1940, Jinnah made a statement demanding a separate Muslim country. Not all Muslim political parties of the time, such as Khaksar Tehreek and Allama Mashriqi were in favor of partition of India on religious lines. Most of the Congress leaders were secular and also opposed the partition of the country. Mahatma Gandhi was against the partition of India on religious lines and believed that Hindus and Muslims should live together peacefully in one country. Gandhi also fought to retain Muslims in the Congress, many of whom had started leaving the party in the 1930s. After the demand for a separate country on religious lines, there was fierce communal violence between Hindus and Muslims in large parts of North India and Bengal, due to which Muslims started feeling more insecure. There came a time when Partition seemed like the only option that could have prevented a massive civil war from erupting in India.
Till 1940 the definition of Pakistan was vague and it was being interpreted in two ways. As a sovereign nation or as a member of a federated India. In 1946, a cabinet mission tried to strike a compromise between the Congress and the Muslim League by suggesting a decentralized state. It was said in this suggestion that adequate power would be given to the local governments. Jawaharlal Nehru refused to agree to a decentralized state and Jinnah maintained his desire for a separate nation of Pakistan.The British government completed Mountbatten’s plan to divide India into two separate parts. The date of independence, 15 August 1947, was fixed by Lord Mountbatten on 3 June 1947.
The main points of the partition plan were also decided. It was said that Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims would vote for partition in the Punjab and Bengal assemblies. If the majority of either group voted in favor of partition, the provinces would be divided. In addition, the Sindh region had to decide for itself in the plan. There was talk of deciding the fate of North West Frontier Province and Sylhet district of Bengal by a referendum. On 15 June 1947, the Mountbatten Plan was passed and the decision of partition was accepted by the members of the All India Congress. The states of Punjab and Bengal were divided. Most of the Muslim part of West Punjab became part of Pakistan while West Bengal remained in India with its Hindu majority. The predominantly Muslim-majority East Bengal became part of Pakistan. This part was later separated from Pakistan and became Bangladesh.
The independence of India and the division of the country into two parts by the Radcliffe Line led to large-scale violence. Millions of people became homeless. Most of the Indian Muslims were going to their ‘newly created country’ in Pakistan, while Hindus and Sikhs who were now in Pakistan were coming to India. Partition destroyed the lives of millions. made millions homeless. The fear of communal violence was haunting everyone. The partition of India led to massive riots between Hindus and Muslims, resulting in endless murders, rapes and kidnappings. Not only this, the seed of hatred which was sown between the two countries in 1947 has become a big dangerous tree today.